Tuesday, May 22, 2018

Fleeing the suburbs for the farm saved this writer's marriage

Schmitt and her husband Jason on their New York farm.
(Photo by Bennett Schmitt)
When Kristen Schmitt and her husband bought an old house in the Detroit suburbs, they planned to stay forever. But restoring the house depleted their savings and strained their marriage and so they decided to move to rural Vermont, barely scraping by for four years as they tried to rebuild their finances.

It was hard going at first, especially in the winter, but they loved it. "While the house was small, it sat on eight acres, and the land was both exciting and overwhelming," Schmitt writes for Salon. "There were mature blackberry and blueberry bushes — some wild and some planted — and fresh bear tracks along the dirt path through the woods that made me nervous. An 11-acre pond, which we shared with a seasonal neighbor, was filled with wood ducks, mallards and Canada geese. The forest cadence was loud without any automotive traffic; coyote howls rippling through the night air seemed both close by and far away at the same time."

Making the move brought Scmitt and her husband closer together, and with a lower cost of living, she was able to stay home with their young daughter and work on her freelance writing career. They eventually swapped their Vermont farm for one in northern New York, and still love farm life.

"Whenever someone asks me if I miss the city or the suburbs, I think about the experiences we’ve gathered over the course of only a few short years," Schmitt writes. "We’ve learned how to heat our own house with wood chopped, split and stacked by hand. We’ve learned the beauty of planting seeds and harvesting food from our land. We’ve watched fluffy chicks blossom into laying hens that peck cracked corn from our hands. We’ve also reclaimed our lives for ourselves and each other, focusing on our own priorities and values rather than those we were told were important."
Read more here.

U.S. lost nearly 31 million acres of farmland to development between 1992 and 2012, according to new report

A new report from the American Farmland Trust, the nation's leading farmland-preservation group, says that America has been losing twice as much farmland as the group thought. That's a problem because In Farms Under Threat: The State of America's Farmland warns that "by 2050, the demands on agriculture to provide sufficient food, fiber and energy are expected to be 50 to 70 percent higher than they are now."

The leading cause of farmland loss is low-density residential development, the report found. Between 1992 and 2012, nearly 31 million acres of agricultural land were lost to development, which is the almost the size of Iowa. Almost 11 million acres of that was prime land for intensive agriculture that would bring high yields with little environmental damage. Less than 17 percent of the total land area of the continental U.S. is suitable for intensive agriculture, so its loss is especially troubling.

Improvements in data and projection models are helping AFT more accurately keep track of the threats to America's agricultural lands and forecast trends. "This first report, Farms Under Threat: The State of America’s Farmland, examines the nation’s irreversible loss of agricultural land to development between 1992 and 2012," the report says. "A subsequent report will analyze state-level data on past farmland conversion and the effectiveness of state-level farmland protection policies. In a third report, Farms Under Threat will assess a range of future threats, forecast potential impacts to 2040 and recommend effective policies that help conserve agricultural land."

AFT plans to offer specific policy suggestions for farmland preservation. In general, counties can preserve farmland by purchasing development rights to farmland, or put farms under a conservation easement. AFT president John Piotti said at a recent press conference that preserving farmland not only helps existing farmers and encourages tourism, but it helps keep land prices down so more young people can get into farming, Al Cross reports for the Midway Messenger in Kentucky. Cross is the director of the Institute for Rural Journalism and Community Issues.

Facebook puts newspapers' promotions of news stories on politics into same category as posts of political advocates

By Al Cross
Director, Institute for Rural Journalism and Community Issues, University of Kentucky
May 22, 2018

For more than a year now I have been warning journalists, and supporters of journalism's role in democracy, that journalism is under threat -- from forces that don't fully understand that role, or fear it. Now there is a new threat, apparently driven by lack of understanding and appreciation of our role by people running the world's primary information platform, Facebook.

Today, the leading social-media network is scheduled to implement a new policy that will undercut the ability of major newspapers, the primary finders of fact in our democratic republic, to promote their work and compete with less reliable sources of information.

The policy will "treat ads promoting political news coverage the same as political advocacy ads," report Mike Snider and Jessica Guynn of USA Today. For the sake of "combating the spread of political misinformation, all Facebook ads featuring political content will get a 'Paid for by' label and carry a disclaimer. . . . These political messaging labels would also appear on 'sponsored' posts that news organizations buy to amplify the reach of an article or video on the political news of the day."

So, a promotion of a deeply reported package of stories about the evolving views of Trump voters in the Upper Midwest, like chief correspondent Dan Balz of The Washington Post did recently, would get the same treatment on Facebook as promotions of the daily "throw it up against the wall and see what sticks" from liberal or conservative interest groups. It's ridiculous.

The policy "is a fundamental mischaracterization of journalism," David Chavern, head of the News Media Alliance, the main lobby for newspaper publishers, told Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg a letter. "Newsgathering and reporting about politics is not the same thing as advocacy or politics. By lumping journalism and issue advocacy together, Facebook is dangerously blurring the line between real reporting and propaganda, and threatening to undermine journalism’s ability to play its critical role in society as the fourth estate."

Chavern suggested negotiations and an alternative: "require disclosure from all advertisers on all advertising; exempt news in the ad-archiving and labeling process for political content; or label and archive news independently from politics and advocacy."

Campbell Brown, the former CNN reporter who heads up Facebook's news partnerships, initially defended the policy but "later said that the company recognized "news content about politics is different and we are working with publishers to develop the right approach," USA Today reports.

Let's hope those negotiations produce a different policy than Facebook plans to implement today. In a world where citizens increasingly have difficulty deciding what sources of news and information are trustworthy, "This treatment of quality news as political, even in the context of marketing, is deeply problematic," Chavern told Zuckerberg. "You are forcing publishers to make a choice between labeling that is fundamentally counter to who we are and what we do, or to walk back our presence on a dominant platform for news consumption and discovery. This will have the effect of elevating less credible news sources on Facebook, the exact opposite of your stated intent."

Rural students face backlash after supporting gun control

Marshall County student Hailey Case
wearing an "Enough is Enough" shirt.
(NYT photo by Andrea Morales)
Recent school shootings have inspired a wave of gun-control activism, some of it from students, and a few of those students from rural areas. "In a more liberal city like Parkland, Fla., or at a rally in Washington, these students might have been celebrated as young leaders," Jack Healy reports for The New York Times. "But in rural, conservative parts of the country where farm fields crackle with target practice and children grow up turkey hunting with their parents, the new wave of student activism clashes with bedrock support for gun rights."

Some students in Benton, Kentucky, began speaking out for gun control after the deadly January shooting at their high school. Soon afterward, friends started shunning them, locals on social media made fun of them and said they should have died during the Marshall County High School shooting, Healey reports. Debate and action in Benton has largely focused on how detect potentially dangerous students and keep schools safer instead of limiting gun rights: After the shooting, the high school hired more armed officers and locked many of the school's doors. Every morning, students are scanned with metal detector wands and have their backpacks searched. 

"Speaking out in a place like Marshall County, Ky., carries a price — measured in frayed friendships, arguments with parents and animosity within the same walls where classmates were gunned down," Healy reports.

Ten high school students from Campbell County High School in Gillette, Wyoming, faced similar backlash when they marched downtown to demand tighter gun laws in solidarity with the survivors of the Parkland, Florida, shooting. The protest was a hard sell in a state with more guns per capita than any other state and rising sales in each of the past five years. "More than 80 percent of adults in Campbell County have firearms in their homes," Eli Saslow reports for The Washington Post.

Moriah Engdahl waits to address the school board.
(Washington Post photo by Jabin Botsford)
"In the days since the march, the 'Campbell County Ten' had become the object of profane graffiti, the inspiration for a rival Freedom March and the favorite target of a new Instagram account, 'Campbell County Students for America,' which shared memes comparing gun protesters to Hitler," Saslow reports. One of them is Moriah Engdahl, 16. Her father, Alan, had more than 250 guns until he lost the right to own firearms after committing a drug felony in 2006. 

Moriah's support of gun control has been a source of tension between the two, with Alan teasing her frequently, asking her if she'd managed to get everyone's guns yet. Though Moriah, a student journalist, had an independent streak, she had never questioned gun rights until the Parkland shooting. The more she researched online, though, the more she became convinced that the problem in Parkland and at home in Gillette (which has one of the nation's highest suicide rates) is unfettered access to guns. 

Moriah spoke to the school board recently in an attempt to dissuade them from arming teachers. She went alone, since the original 10 students protesting in Gillette had eroded to four: one student's furious mother pulled her daughter into the car during the protest, and in the days afterward a few students said they wanted to focus on less controversial issues like remembering victims or discouraging bullying. The remaining four included Moriah and the outspoken editor of the school newspaper, and two others. At a meeting at Starbucks to plan their next steps, one lamented that "Even my dad has started calling me a gun-control libtard," Saslow reports.

Free Rural Health Journalism Workshop in North Carolina June 8; deadline to apply for travel stipend is tomorrow

The Association of Health Care Journalists is hosting a free one-day workshop on covering health on June 8 in Research Triangle, North Carolina.

The conference is free for AHCJ members, but registration is required by May 25. Members who need financial assistance should apply for one of the limited travel stipends by the May 23 deadline.

The keynote speaker will be Hannah Koch, a research and technical assistance associate at the Mental Health Program, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. Koch will tentatively discuss key behavioral health issues in rural communities.

Five workshops will cover a variety of topics, including "What reporters should know about rural residents and rural health," featuring Alan Morgan, chief executive officer of the National Rural Health Association and Dr. Jeffrey Heck, president and chief executive officer of the Mountain Area Health Education Center. 

Another workshop, "Will your local hospital survive?" includes George Pink, deputy director of the North Carolina Rural Health Research Program and Dana Weston, president of the University of North Carolina Rockingham Health Center. 

The "Addressing rural health workforce hurdles" workshop includes Mark Holmes, director of the North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center and the director of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research and Dr. Robert Bashford, associate dean for the Office of Rural Initiatives at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. 

The "Rural opioid crisis: Access to treatment and harm reduction" workshop includes Regina LaBelle, visiting fellow, Duke-Margolis Center for Health Policy and a former chief of staff in the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and Donald McDonald, executive director, Addiction Professionals of North Carolina. 

And wrapping up the day is a workshop titled, "Can telemedicine transform health care in rural communities?" featuring Latoya Thomas, policy director for the American Telemedicine Association. 

To register for the event click here. To request a travel stipend click here or send an e-mail to the membership coordinator Tina England at Tina@healthjournalism.org.

Monday, May 21, 2018

U.S. and China step back from threatened tariffs; Trump tweets at farmers worried about trade war

After two days of negotiation between Chinese and U.S. officials in Washington, D.C., the Trump administration has announced the framework of an agreement between the two countries in their ongoing trade dispute, leading both to step back from threatened tariffs that would hurt American farmers, David Lynch reports for The Washington Post. But the deal's lack of specifics has left interested parties dissatisfied and led many to question whether President Trump, who prides himself on his negotiating skills, is giving away too much to the Chinese.

Trump had earlier demanded a $200 billion reduction in the $375 billion U.S. trade deficit with China, but while the tentative agreement apparently does not meet that goal, he has halted tariffs he had threatened to impose on $150 billion worth of Chinese products. A joint statement issued on Saturday said the U.S. would send a team to China to hammer out the details, "which also may include expanded trade in manufactured goods and stronger 'cooperation' in enforcement of intellectual property protections," Lynch reported in an earlier story for the Post.

On Friday, China's Ministry of Commerce announced it would halt the investigation into U.S. sorghum exports and remove the 178.6 percent anti-dumping tariff it had imposed on U.S. sorghum one month ago. The announcement could be construed as a goodwill gesture in ongoing trade talks. "Chinese officials also said the price of domestic pork in China was falling and restrictions on imported sorghum would increase feed costs on pork producers as well," Chris Clayton reports for DTN/The Progressive Farmer.

The trade war was undermining Trump's agricultural base, to which he appealed on Twitter. He tweeted, "China has agreed to buy massive amounts of ADDITIONAL Farm/Agricultural Products," but that does not appear to be true, since there is no agreement. Two hours later, he tweeted, "Under our potential deal with China, they will purchase from our Great American Farmers practically as much as our Farmers can produce." That remains to be seen; as he clarified, the deal is "potential."

Defeat of Farm Bill in House may push renewal into 2019, which might not be bad politics for Republicans

The defeat of a new Farm Bill in the House on Friday may push the renewal process past the Sept. 30 expiration date of the current law, much like what happened in 2013. Then the fight was over big cuts in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, once called food stamps. This time it's not only SNAP, it's immigration, an issue that divides Republicans.

"A revolt by Republican conservatives defeated a new Farm Bill calling for stricter work requirements for food-stamp recipients and looser payment limit rules for farmers. Once again, the delay may stretch into the new year," Chuck Abbott reports for Successful Farming. Rep. Collin Peterson of Minnesota, ranking Democrat on the Agriculture Committee, told him that "What we'll end up with is an extension" of the current law: “Our side is not going to live with this work requirement stuff.” But committee chair Michael Conaway of Texas told Abbott that SNAP work requirements “absolutely” must be part of the bill. The Senate is not expected to accept them.

Conaway's bill would require “work capable” adults ages 18 to 59 to work or take job training at least 20 hours a week, and tight eligibility rules. "Democrats said the combination would push 2 million people off of SNAP," Abbott notes. Economist Vince Smith of Montana State University told Abbott, “In many ways, no bill is the better outcome for many Republicans. Instead, they can just vote for an extension through, say, March 31 of next year. That way, the House Republicans with urban constituencies can avoid being tarred with a vote to reduce the scope of food stamps.”

Abbott reports, "Meanwhile, on the farm side of the bill, an array of fiscal hawks, good-government advocates, environmentalists, and libertarian think tanks attacked provisions to make cousins, nieces, and nephews eligible for up to $125,000 a year in farm subsidies and to remove payment limits on some forms of corporate farming."

States of Senior Hunger report says food insecurity among those over 60 is worst in the Deep South and Southwest

A new report about the state of hunger among American seniors reveals that more than 15 million faced food insecurity at varying levels in 2016, the year with the most recent national and state-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau's December Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Food insecurity was found to be greatest among those living in the South and Southwest, racial or ethnic minorities, people with lower incomes, and younger seniors (ages 60-69).

Food insecurity is measured in three tiers, as established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: marginal food insecurity, food insecurity, and very low food security. Each category had fewer people in 2016 than 2014. The study's top findings:
  • "13.6 percent of seniors are marginally food insecure, 7.7 percent are food insecure, and 2.9 percent are very low food secure. This translates into 8.6 million, 4.9 million, and 1.8 million seniors, respectively.  
  • From 2015 to 2016, there were statistically significant declines in the percentage of marginally food-insecure seniors. However, there were no statistically significant changes in food insecurity or very low food security. Looking at demographic categories, there were sizable and statistically significant declines for several categories among the marginally food insecure; however, only two groups – those with incomes above 200 percent of the poverty line and white seniors—experienced significant declines in food insecurity. 
  • Across all three measures, from 2014 to 2016 there were statistically significant declines of 2.2 percentage points, 1.2 percentage points, and 0.5 percentage points for marginal food insecurity, food insecurity, and very low food security. 
  • Compared to 2001, the fractions of marginal food insecure, food insecure, and very low food secure seniors increased by 27 percent, 45 percent, and 100 percent, respectively. The number of seniors in each group rose 90 percent, 113 percent, and 200 percent, which also reflects the growing population of seniors. "
The State of Senior Hunger in America 2016: An Annual Report was researched by professors James Ziliak of the University of Kentucky and Craig Gundersen of the University of Illinois, and was prepared for Feeding America and the National Foundation to End Senior Hunger

Lung transplants rise along with black-lung cases

A new study published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine shows that, as black-lung cases have surged in the Central Appalachian coalfield, so have lung transplants. The expensive surgery can be risky, and most transplant recipients die within five years. The study, conducted by researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "found that 62 black lung patients had lung transplant surgery over the past two decades, and most of the miners lived in Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia," Benny Becker reports for Ohio Valley ReSource. "The study also found that more than two dozen patients were placed on a wait list for transplants. Of those, 11 died while waiting."

The study's lead author, David Blackley, said that the rate of lung transplants for black-lung patients increased nearly threefold in the last decade. "That suggested pretty strongly to us that this is a problem that's getting worse," he told Becker.

Insurance from coal companies and other private sources paid for about one third of the lung transplants. Nearly two-thirds were paid for with public insurance, including 26 percent paid for by Medicare and up to 24 percent paid for by the federal Black Lung Disability Trust Fund. "That fund has paid more than $45 billion to cover benefits for miners who can’t seek benefits from their employer, because the responsible company has either gone bankrupt or can’t be identified," Becker reports. A federal study is looking into how long the fund can stay solvent given the rise in cases.

The researchers who conducted the study had also recently discovered that the spike in late-stage black lung in Central Appalachia is the largest cluster of the disease ever recorded.

Signs of more drought ahead for Colorado River basin

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration map of drought conditions
Runoff levels in the Colorado River from melting snowpack peaked early last week, the earliest peak in the past 50 years. It's also the fourth lowest volume of peak runoff recorded in 85 years. Peak runoff's early appearance and modest height predict a drought that experts say will be more common, Allen Best reports for Route Fifty.

Several parts of the U.S. already face drought conditions, mainly the Southwest. That will likely hurt the nearly 40 million people and 5 million acres of farmland that depend on the Colorado and its tributaries.

"If you ask why there is so little runoff in the Colorado and other rivers this year and why it has come so early, the No. 1 reason is we didn’t get much snowfall. That explains the bulk of this anomaly,"  Jeff Lukas, a research integration specialist with the University of Colorado’s Western Water Assessment, told Best. "But the temperature, much warmer than normal, especially from November to January, is a part of the story."

Lukas noted that runoffs have been unusually low for the past 16 years and that droughts are now more common than they were in the past, which he said "may speak to the contribution of human-caused warming."

Increased temperature is the main cause of the drought, with precipitation a secondary contributor, according to a 2017 paper by Jonathan Overpeck, dean of the School for Environment and Sustainability at the University of Michigan. "Temperatures in the region have increased, and as they do, the warming atmosphere needs more moisture.," Best reports. "Overpeck and his co-researcher, Brad Udall of Colorado State University, concluded that the moisture is being induced into the atmosphere through increased evaporation and transpiration." 

"This turns out to be the very biggest consequence of the temperature-induced drought in the Colorado River Basin,” Overpeck said. "Wildfire is going crazy in the Southwest, and it’s for the same reason."

'Buckwild' makers filming another West Virginia reality show

The original cast; Gandee is at left
The executive producers of MTV's reality series "Buckwild" are returning to West Virginia to shoot a new series in Charleston and Morgantown called "West Virginia Wilder." Morgantown native and executive producer J.P. Williams says it will be similar to "Buckwild" but will be funnier and have a stronger female cast, Max Garland reports for the Charleston Gazette-Mail.

"I think this show will be a completion of what we got started," Williams told Garland. "There’s a lot I’m excited about, frankly."

"Buckwild" ran for one season and scored well with the coveted age 12 to 34 demographic, but was canceled after one of its stars, Shain Gandee, was killed in an all-terrain vehicle accident in 2013.

Some West Virginians, such  U.S. Sen. Joe Manchin, disliked "Buckwild", saying it played to negative stereotypes, but Williams said his shows are about "laughing with — not at," which he says is a "huge distinction that needs to be made," Garland reports.

The new show may not be on MTV; the show's producers say they're considering multiple offers on broadcast rights and will announce a decision soon.

Friday, May 18, 2018

Anti-immigration Republicans beat GOP Farm Bill in House

Republicans who want action on immigration brought down their party's own Farm Bill on Friday.

"The House leadership put the bill on the floor gambling it would pass despite unanimous Democratic opposition," Erica Werner and Mike DeBonis report for The Washington Post. "They negotiated with members of the conservative House Freedom Caucus up to the last minutes. But their gamble failed. The vote was 213 to 198, with 30 Republicans joining 183 Democrats in defeating the bill."

The bill "included President Donald Trump's push to impose stricter work requirements on food stamp recipients," Politico notes. "It is a huge setback to the farm lobby and House Speaker Paul Ryan's welfare-reform agenda." The current Farm Bill expires Sept. 30, and "GOP farm-state lawmakers are hoping that the farm bill can provide some relief for agricultural producers dealing with a multiyear drop in crop prices and an uncertain trade environment."

The House Freedom Caucus, a bloc of ardent conservatives, had "held the bill hostage" for two days, Politico reports, "demanding that the House first vote on controversial immigration legislation in exchange for their support for the sweeping agriculture and nutrition legislation." The Post reports, "With moderate Republicans maneuvering to force a vote on legislation offering citizenship to some younger immigrants who arrived in the country as children, conservatives revolted."

Politico reports, "GOP leaders said they would delay a motion to reconsider the bill until a later date. It is unclear if they intend to try to pass the partisan bill again — or move to a bipartisan document that could easily clear the Senate."

The Post looks ahead: "The outcome exposed what is becoming an all-out war within the House GOP over immigration, a divisive fight the Republicans did not want to have heading into midterm elections in November that will decide control of Congress. . . . The House farm bill would have been a non-starter anyway in the Senate, which is writing its own farm bill. Any legislation that ultimately makes it to Trump’s desk will have to look more like the version in the Senate, where bipartisan support will be necessary for anything to pass and there is not sufficient support for the food-stamp changes."

And Politico looks back: "Rejection of the legislation is reminiscent of the last Farm Bill cycle in 2013, when the House also voted down a conservative version of the legislation, delaying the process for months. Ultimately, the sweeping bill was bailed out by Democrats the following year. . . . A partisan farm bill is a departure from past tradition, when a coalition of moderate lawmakers from rural and urban America came together to support the agricultural economy and some 40 million people who now get help buying groceries."

Farm states say they bear 'unfair' brunt of Chinese tariffs; Commerce secretary says administration will try to help

"Several senators whose states are already feeling the effects of escalating U.S. trade tensions with China pressed Wilbur Ross at Thursday’s Senate Appropriations [Committee] hearing on the Trump administration’s tariff strategy," Dave Nyczepir reports for Route Fifty.

Sen. Jerry Moran, the Kansas Republican who chairs the committee said the tariffs imposed by China have done "significant economic harm" to his state, which he noted is a leader in beef, pork, wheat, sorghum and soybean production--all of which have been slapped with heavy tariffs.

Ross, Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin went to China last week in an attempt to halt the escalating trade war. Both sides delivered specific demands, Ross said at the hearing, but said the gap between what the two countries want remains "wide." 

Agriculture had figured heavily in the trade discussions with China, Ross said, and promised "we will do our level best to minimize the problem and to maximize the support we can provide in helping them."

Trump plans to cut emergency funds from CHIP program

President Trump wants to cut $7 billion from contingency funds in the Children's Health Insurance Plan in an effort to cut the nearly $1 trillion federal deficit. Though the measure wouldn't directly affect the deficit, lawmakers would be able to use those funds for other programs instead of borrowing more money, Phil Galewitz reports for Kaiser Health News.

Critics of the proposal, like Georgetown University law professor David Super, say it's "pure political theater, ugly theater" since it would do little to reduce the deficit, and it could end up hurting some of the 9 million low-income children the program covers.

The program used its contingency funds last year when Congress allowed its funding to lapse for 114 days. Several states ran out of money and needed the contingency cash to keep children covered. It can be argued that taking away contingency funds is a bet that such a situation will not occur again.

EPA sued for not requiring mining companies to prove they have the money to clean hazardous waste spills

"Six environmental groups on Wednesday filed a lawsuit against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chief Scott Pruitt for abandoning a rule that would have forced hard-rock mining companies to prove they have enough money up front to clean up hazardous substances released at mine sites," Reuters reports

The groups, including Earthjustice, Earthworks, and the Sierra Club, filed the lawsuit in the District of Columbia Circuit Court. Many abandoned former mines in the U.S. West are still polluted and harm public health, the groups argued. When mining companies go bankrupt, taxpayers have to pay millions or even billions in cleanup. The EPA estimates the current backlog of cleanup costs for hard-rock mines in the U.S. is anywhere from $20 billion to $54 billion. 

"In December, the EPA decided to abandon the rulemaking process after determining that modern industry practices already address risks from operating hard-rock mining facilities," Reuters reports. Pruitt said at the time that the rule would impose an "undue burden on this important sector of the American economy and rural America, where most of these mining jobs are based."

4-H project propels Pennsylvania teen to successful hog business

Dakota Grumbine feeds his Berkshire hogs. (PBS NewsHour video footage capture)
4-H has been helping students gain confidence and learn about animal husbandry for more than 100 years, and a Pennsylvania teen has taken those lessons to heart with extraordinary results, Alexis Lesher reports for PBS NewsHour's Student Reporting Labs series, Making It Work.

When Dakota Grumbine was 8 years old, he raised some pigs for a 4-H project. But with hard work, the Lebanon teen has turned that project into a profitable business breeding pasture-raised Berkshire pigs and selling the meat to butchers and restaurants. Berkshires are a specialty breed that bring more than a dollar more per pound than regular pork. 

Grumbine's Berkshires now has 20 sows, four boars, and nearly 200 customers, but he had a lot to learn to get his business off the ground. "When I first started off, I didn’t really have any luck as far as the breeding standpoint goes," Dakota told Lesher. "I couldn’t get pigs settled. The litters were small. Not many of them had a second litter, or they just didn’t work out. So it took me a while to get a sow base built up."

Dakota said that even if he doesn't stick with raising hogs as a career, he's glad he's learning how to manage time and money, as well as other skills. His dad, Darren Grumbine, agreed: "The younger you are when you start something, the easier it is to pick it up. I see other kids don’t enjoy certain opportunities such as public speaking and talking to strangers. He did that stuff at such a young age, that now he doesn’t even really think about some of those things that hold a lot of kids back."

Thursday, May 17, 2018

MIT project helps self-driving cars navigate rural roads

How MIT's car sees the world with a LiDar sensor (MIT illustration)
Self-driving cars are already on the streets in a few urban areas, but they face a significant barrier to driving rural roads: there may not be detailed three-dimensional maps available (think Google Street View maps), and the roads can be twisty with few or no buildings nearby to help the car assess landmarks or road edges. But researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a way to help autonomous cars navigate rural roads, and "their strategy involves teaching cars to drive like humans," Rob Verger reports for Popular Science.

Though self-driving cars rely on detailed maps to help them figure out where they are in a city, many have a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensor that helps it see curbs and other obstacles. The MIT team juiced up their test vehicle's LiDar sensor to help it detect the difference between the asphalt and the grass. The LiDAR's 64 lasers each spun around 10 times per second, providing constant feedback on what the car's surroundings look like and where it was on the road.

That’s how the car perceived where the road was in front of it, but it still had to know how to drive to its destination without a great 3D map in its silicon brain (although it did have GPS)," Verger reports. "To do that, it picked a 'local goal'—a point in the road up ahead that the car could see, and drove towards it. But it didn’t just drive to that point and stop. The vehicle constantly refreshed that goal as it approached it, like paddling towards a point on the horizon on a big, flat lake."

Christoph Mertz, a scientist at Carnegie Mellon University's Robotics Institute, admires the project because he says rural areas are sometimes neglected by scientists, and this project could help rural residents: "If these autonomous vehicles don’t drive in rural areas, then the elderly there might be stuck in their houses because nobody can drive them."

North Carolina teacher protest exposes urban-rural divide

N.C. teachers march on Raleigh. (AP photo by Gerry Broome)
Thousands of North Carolina teachers marched on the state Capitol in Raleigh yesterday in support of increased school funding.

About two-thirds of the state's children were out of school yesterday because there weren't enough substitutes to cover for teachers who requested the day off. "But the districts that canceled class, affecting nearly 1 million students, are concentrated in the state’s urban and suburban counties. Most of the state’s 100 counties are rural, and their school districts stayed open," Valerie Bauerlein reports for The Wall Street Journal. "That divergence isn’t a coincidence, and reflects the growing divide in the state between the liberal cities that drive the state’s economy and the conservative small towns and rural areas that control state politics."

The protest differed from those in other states in that teachers only expected to march for one day, and many said they didn't expect lawmakers to raise teacher pay immediately, Bauerlein reports.

One protesting teacher, Jenna Moore, said she has to work a second job as a real-estate agent to make ends meet, and that schools are not given enough funding for classroom supplies. Moore is a fifth-grade teacher in the city of High Point, pop. 111,223.

The state Republican Party said the protest unnecessarily inconveniences parents and students, and noted that the legislature has increased teacher pay every year for the past four years, with another increase scheduled for next year. North Carolina ranks 37th in teacher pay, with an estimated annual average of $50,861, compared to the national average of $60,483, according to a report from the National Education Association. While North Carolina law bars public employees from joining unions, the organization that sponsored the march, the North Carolina Association of Educators, is an NEA affiliate.

Were chicken prices fixed? Are they still being fixed?

In February several grocery retailers and the country's two biggest food distributors filed suit against a slew of poultry companies like Tyson Foods and Perdue Farms, accusing them of colluding to fix the price of broiler chickens for 10 years. It's the third lawsuit in less than two years alleging poultry price fixing, and a fascinating new story from NPR explains how the story leaked in the first place.

In 2016, some Wall Street hedge fund investors had bet a lot of money that the stocks of chicken companies (along with the price of chicken) would fall, but the stock prices and chicken prices remained high, Dan Charles reports for NPR. The investors wondered if chicken companies were keeping prices artificially high, and hired a lawyer to investigate.

The lawyer found that many big chicken buyers, such as supermarkets and restaurant chains, were using the Georgia Department of Agriculture's chicken price index to set their prices, since Georgia is the nation's leading poultry producer. A department employee named Arty Schronce was in charge of compiling the index. He called big companies like Tyson weekly and asked how much they were selling chickens and chicken parts for, then sent out the index in a newsletter. But the hedge-fund lawyer noticed that Schronce's numbers were too high -- sometimes 30 percent to 50 percent higher than other indexes, Charles reports.

Then the lawyer found a memo Schronce had written to himself, saying he didn't believe his own index anymore. There was no protocol to make sure chicken was actually selling at the prices the producers quoted. "Within a day of the lawyer getting that memo, it's been passed on to The Washington Post," Charles reports. "When it's published, it destroys the reputation of that price index. Georgia stops publishing it. Which is what Artie Schronce had proposed in his memo; it just took some short-selling Wall Street guys to make it happen."

Chicken prices still didn't fall after chicken buyers stopped using the index, and that's part of the reason for the current lawsuit: chicken buyers say poultry producers had fixed the prices and somehow still are. Not only is this a study in poultry pricing, it may be a cautionary tale about data and their sources.

Senate votes to save net neutrality in mostly symbolic vote

The U.S. Senate voted 52-47 yesterday to preserve federal net neutrality rules, which had been repealed in December by the Federal Communications Commission. The resolution of disapproval was mostly symbolic, since the heavily Republican-controlled House is unlikely to pass it, and even if it did, President Trump would likely veto it. But because most Americans favor net neutrality, Senate Democrats are likely looking to use the vote as political fodder against Republicans in the upcoming midterm elections.

The Senate vote was mostly along party lines, with all Democrats and three Republicans voting for the resolution: Susan Collins of Maine, Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, and John Kennedy of Louisiana, Alyssa Newcomb reports for NBC News.

The major battleground for net neutrality rules is now at the state level. Several states have passed net neutrality protections by legislation or executive order, such as Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Salt Lake Tribune lays off a third of newsroom employees; won't have separate section for Utah news on most days

A little over two years ago, Utah's two major newspapers cut back on their rural circulation. Such moves are often followed by a reduction in rural coverage, and that happened this week, as the Salt Lake Tribune announced that it would cut its newsroom by a third and "eliminate its high-profile Utah news section Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, having already gone dark with its Monday version of the local news page," Tony Semerad reports for the Tribune.

"Local coverage will still be available every day of the week, but on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, you’ll find it in the A section," Editor Jennifer Napier-Pearce wrote in an editor's note. "I thank our loyal readers and subscribers — both print and digital — for standing by us through these difficult times. We feel the love and hope you’ll continue to value our coverage. Send us news tips. Share our stories on social media. Sign up for our newsletters. Listen to our podcasts. Attend our live public events. Encourage local businesses to advertise in the paper and online. And, of course, subscribe."

Paul Huntsman, who bought the paper in 2016, warned of the cuts last week, saying they were "part of breakthroughs in talks with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, owner of the Deseret News, The Tribune’s business partner on print, advertising and circulation, Semerad reports. "But for staff, going from the journalism high of winning a 2017 Pulitzer Prize and confidence in Huntsman’s philanthropic ownership to Monday’s hard and sobering shift felt like a blow to the Tribune’s identity — not least its ability to keep a watchdog role in Utah and build audiences."

U.S. Department of Education derails for-profit college investigation, hires people with for-profit college ties

"Members of a special team at the Education Department that had been investigating widespread abuses by for-profit colleges have been marginalized, reassigned or instructed to focus on other matters," Danielle Ivory, Erica Green and Steve Eder report for The New York Times. That's derailed probes of several large for-profit colleges where some of Education Secretary Betsy DeVos's top hires had worked, such as DeVry Education Group, now known as Adtalem Global Education. For-profit colleges are prevalent in rural areas or tend to attract a disproportionate number of students from young adults in rural areas.

The team was created in 2016, the last year of the Obama administration, after the collapse of California-based Corinthian Colleges. It began investigating advertising, recruitment practices and job-placement claims by several for-profit colleges, but the probe suddenly stopped early last year, and last summer DeVos named former DeVry dean and current Education Department employee Julian Schmoke as the investigative team's supervisor. Last summer the Trump administration also suspended rules aimed at protecting students from predatory for-profit colleges.

Other former for-profit college employees who now work for DeVos include "Robert S. Eitel, her senior counselor, and Diane Auer Jones, a senior adviser on postsecondary education. Last month, Congress confirmed the appointment of a lawyer who provided consulting services to Career Education, Carlos G. Muñiz, as the department’s general counsel," the Times reports.

The investigative team now only has three members, and its scope has been narrowed to focusing on processing student-loan forgiveness applications and lesser compliance cases, according to former members. Department spokesperson Elizabeth Hill said the team is smaller because of attrition, and investigations are only one way the department provides oversight. Hill said the refocus of the team's efforts isn't an indication that the department is curtailing its oversight, and said none of the new employees who had worked in the for-profit industry influenced the team's work.

"The former and current employees disputed Ms. Hill’s account, and said the group and its work had become an issue of contention during meetings with the Trump transition team," the Times reports. "Several of the employees said that there had been a staff push to continue the investigation as recently as this year, with no result."

Recreation is a key to rural population and economic growth

"The outdoor recreation industry is a critical engine for the national economy, larger in size than the agriculture and fossil-fuel mining and drilling sectors, according to a recent Department of Commerce report," Bryce Oates reports for The Daily Yonder. "The report also said that rural communities and small business owners are a key ingredient in the growing economic engine."

A Stateline analysis of census data found that outdoor recreation helped drive the slight growth in rural population from 2016 to 2017. While populations shrank in big mining and farming counties, those with large recreational industries grew, and grew the most. Independent research group Headwaters Economics found that population, employment and personal income grew an average of two times faster or more in Western rural counties with the most federal lands, Oates reports.

The Commerce Department's Bureau of Economic Analysis began compiling its report in 2016 after President Obama signed the Outdoor Recreation Jobs and Economic Impact Act, which directed the department to work with the Agriculture and Interior departments to assess and analyze the outdoor recreation economy. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross hailed the report as a good source of data that businesses can use to help them plan for the future, as it measures the economic impact of recreational activities such as boating, fishing, RVing, hunting, camping and hiking.

According to the BEA report, the largest industry in outdoor recreation is motorized vehicles (mostly RVs), which accounted for $59.5 billion of economic activity in 2016. Boating and fishing contributed $38.2 billion that year, and hunting/fishing/trapping brought $15.4 billion.

An industry trade group called the Outdoor Industry Association did a similar study that found $887 billion of economic activity generated by outdoor recreation, more than twice what BEA found. The difference lies in the methodology: "The BEA report did not account for the revenue produced from apparel and equipment manufactured overseas, which makes up a large portion of outdoor gear," Oates reports. "In addition, the BEA did not measure recreation spending on trips that happen less than 50 miles from home."

Massive billing schemes found at recently purchased rural hospitals, insurance companies allege

We asked in March, "Heard of a rural hospital in danger of closing being rescued by a buyer when no one else seemed willing to buy it?" and warned, "It may be a scam." Now insurance companies are trying to get back nearly half a billion dollars they paid rural hospitals in several states because of alleged fraud. "In March, Blue Cross Blue Shield filed a $60 million lawsuit against Hospital Partners, alleging their arrangement with labs was a 'fraudulent scheme'," Jim Axelrod reports for CBS News. Hospital Partners is in turn suing Missouri State Auditor Nicole Galloway, claiming she had no right to audit Hospital Partners property Putnam County Memorial Hospital in 2016.

The scheme works like this: a company that owns a laboratory service (such as Hospital Partners) buys a struggling rural hospital, then issues bills for laboratory work from all over the country through the rural hospital. This means more profit, because insurance companies reimburse rural hospitals at higher rates to help keep health care in those areas. The labs sometimes plump their bottom lines by paying kickbacks to health-care providers for specimens they could then bill at the higher rates, Axelrod reports. "Essentially the hospital appeared to act as a shell company for these questionable lab billings," Missouri Auditor Galloway said. "In a six-month period, [Putnam] funneled through about $92 million in revenues. To put that in perspective, the previous year their total revenues were $7.5 million."

Jason Mehta, a former federal prosecutor who specialized in health-care fraud cases, told Axelrod that defining the scheme as fraud requires specific parameters: "The question's gonna be, did the laboratories intend to cheat? Did they intend to trick? Did they mislead the insurance companies? Because simply making extra money isn't a crime in and of itself. It's the question of, was someone tricked? Was some deceived?" The situation also has implications for Medicare and Medicaid, which provide a larger share of revenue for rural hospitals than for others.

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Fewer U.S. workers are using prescription opioids, but more are using cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana

Fewer U.S. workers are using prescription opioids, but more are using methamphetamines, cocaine, and marijuana, according to data released by Quest Diagnostics, which conducts workplace drug testing, Katie Zezima reports for The Washington Post.

The overall percentage of workers who tested positive for drug use remains unchanged since 2016 at 4.2 percent, but it's higher than the 3.5 percent return in 2012. Positives for meth have increased 167 percent in the South and Midwest in the past five years, and cocaine positives have increased dramatically in some areas: there was a spike of 91 percent in Nebraska and 88 percent in Idaho from 2016 to 2017. Marijuana positives have increased in states where recreational use of the drug has been legalized, such as Nevada, Massachusetts, and California. Those states also saw a bump in positive marijuana tests among safety-sensitive workers such as pilots and truck drivers, Zezima reports.

"The increases come as the number of workers testing positive for prescription opioids and heroin have declined, even though the opioid crisis continues to ravage the United States," Zezima reports. "The rate of drug tests that were positive for a prescription painkiller declined by 17 percent from 2016 to 2017. Tests for a metabolite that is in heroin dropped by 11 percent from 2016 to 2017, a three-year low." Part of that may be because Quest doesn't test for synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, which is driving the increase in drug overdose deaths.

Barry Sample, senior director of science and technology at Quest, told Zezima: These changing patterns and geographical variations may challenge the ability of employers to anticipate the 'drug of choice' for their workforce or where to best focus their drug prevention efforts to ensure a safe and healthy work environment."

Click here for a handy guide for journalists on how to cover rising meth use, from Journalist's Resource at Harvard University.

$71-a-barrel crude gets more drilling rigs into the oil patch

Wall Street Journal graphic from Baker Hughes data (Click to enlarge )
Higher oil prices have triggered a rise in drilling into deep shale formations in the U.S, and though oil fields in the Permian Basin of West Texas and New Mexico are still the fastest-growing spot, shortages in labor and materials and congested pipelines there have prompted drillers to look further afield. "From Oklahoma to North Dakota, companies are increasing investment in oil fields that fell out of favor several years ago, as $70-a-barrel crude prices make fracking and horizontal drilling economical in more places again," Rebecca Elliott reports for The Wall Street Journal.

The oil-rig count in the Permian more than tripled over the past two years because its existing infrastructure and high-yielding shale made it the least expensive place in the U.S. to get oil from fracking, but the number of oil rigs in other basins more than doubled in the same period. That includes North Dakota's Bakken region, the Eagle Ford in South Texas, the Granite Wash in the Texas Panhandle and the Cana Woodford in Oklahoma.

"Last year it was all about, 'How much can you put in the Permian?'" Daniel Romero, an analyst with the energy consulting firm Wood Mackenzie, told Elliott. "But now, a few months later, it’s what else are you doing outside of the Permian?"

Maine's senators introduce bill to suspend newsprint tariff

"Maine’s two U.S. senators have introduced a bill to delay final implementation of an import tax on Canadian newsprint," Dennis Hoey and Edward Murphy report for the Press Herald in Portland. "Federal agencies have begun imposing a tariff on imported newsprint of as much as 32 percent, and critics say it is already hurting U.S. newspapers and other print publications."

A newsprint mill in Washington state that was recently purchased by a hedge fund triggered the tariffs after it complained that Canada unfairly subsidized newsprint manufacturing. The Department of Commerce and the International Trade Commission announced the first round of countervailing duties on uncoated groundwood paper in January. Countervailing duties are a sort of tariff levied on imported goods to offset subsidies given to producers in the exporting country. In March, Commerce also announced preliminary "anti-dumping" duties as high as 22.16 percent on Canadian newsprint imports.

The proposed PRINT Act, sponsored by Republican Susan Collins and independent Angus King, who caucuses with the Democrats, "would require the Commerce Department to study the health of the domestic newsprint industry along with the newspaper industry, and issue a report to the president and Congress within 90 days . . . since Commerce and ITC typically don't typically study the impact of import taxes on secondary industries, only the industry that duties would help protect--in this case, newsprint makers," Hoey and Murphy report. The bill would also freeze the import tax until the president has received the report and agrees it's in the nation's economic interest.

Medicare boosts payments to durable medical equipment suppliers in rural areas hurt by competitive bidding process

"Companies that supply medical equipment through Medicare say the program's plans to boost their payments isn't a giveaway, but rather a reflection of the reality that small companies serving remote areas have been crushed by Medicare's competitive bidding system," Bob Herman reports for Axios.

Medicare implemented a competitive bidding program several years ago to control costs. It mostly affected the durable medical equipment (DME) industry, which has a long history of Medicare fraud and questionable billing practices. Durable equipment includes walkers, wheelchairs, oxygen tanks and insulin pumps.

But the program hurt rural DME suppliers, so the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services raised payments for DME suppliers in early May to help mitigate those losses. Seniors and taxpayers will foot the bill for an estimated $70 million of the $360 million annual expenditure for the payment raise. "Medigap plans and Medicaid will cover part of those out-of-pocket costs, but "beneficiaries who do not have supplemental insurance or who are not dual eligible will have increased cost-sharing as a result," according to the regulation," Herman reported in an earlier piece.

Journalist-author, a rural native, says metro and national editors should commission stories from rural journalists

Editors of national and metropolitan publications should commission stories from rural journalists who have more knowledge of their communities than urban reporters who parachute in, journalist Sarah Smarsh told Journalist's Resource, a service of the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University, where she was recently a Joan Shorenstein fellow, developing a podcast about the intersection of health and poverty.

Sarah Smarsh
“I’m most partial to the strategies that essentially harness the reporting power of people who are already there in those places who perhaps were laid off five years ago from their local newspaper,” Smarsh said. “I think we’ll find out the extent to which those strategies succeed over the next few years.”

Smarsh says too many urban reports on rural areas paid with a broad, white brush. Rural areas are much more racially diverse than one would think from reading national headlines, she told JRThose parts of the country have always been much more than white people, and as we speak they are diversifying, in some places quite rapidly, often due to an influx in immigrant populations taking jobs in industries like industrial agriculture and meatpacking plants. Barely a majority of the eligible voting population ends up at the polls, and then somewhere around under half of people vote for the candidate who wins that state, and then the whole square is colored red on a cable-news graphic.

"Smarsh reports on socioeconomic class, politics and more for national and international outlets, including The Guardian, The New Yorker and The Cut," JR reports. "Her forthcoming book, Heartland: A Daughter of the Working Class Reconciles an American Divide, delves into her experiences with class and place growing up on a working farm in Kansas."

Monday, May 14, 2018

Resentment of coastal elites, much of it rural, still motivates Trump voters, according to three new reports

By Al Cross
Director, Institute for Rural Journalism and Community Issues

A resentment of coastal elites is a key to the support that President Trump still enjoys in parts of the country that abandoned their usual Democratic allegiances for him in 2016. That's a thread that runs through three recent in-depth reports: one by a Democratic pollster, one by The Washington Post's chief political reporter, and the other by a conservative journalist who was one of the leaders in defining the who and why of Trump voters before the election.

Much of this resentment is in among Americans, as I outlined in a speech to a rural-education conference last week and in a chapter for a book, The Trump Presidency, Journalism and Democracy, published by Routledge in Februrary. The latest reports are by pollster Stan Greenberg, on voters in suburban Macomb County, Michigan; the Post's Dan Balz, who reported from rural counties along and near the upper Mississippi River; and Salena Zito, who with Republican operative Brad Todd wrote The Great Revolt, a new book based on "10 counties they studied across the five states that tipped the election to Trump, as the Post's James Hohman describes it in the paper's "Daily 202."

Here's what Michael Martin of Erie, Pa., told the authors: “Live in a small or medium-sized town, and you would think we were dragging the country down. We aren’t a country just made up of large metropolitan areas. Our politics and our culture up until now has dictated that we are less than in the scale of importance and value.” That is reflected in much of the national news media, based mainly on the East Coast, and resentment of media portrayals is a big part of the attitudes of rural voters, who gave at least 62 percent of their votes to Trump, a record.

Zito and Todd note "a polarization between those who live in dense cosmopolitan communities with higher-than-average education levels and those who live in rural, exurban and industrial locales that, as a rule, have . . . lower-than-average education levels and less transience." Four of the 10 counties where they did interviews are rural; evangelical voters are represented largely by rural Howard County, Iowa, where Obama got 62 and 59 percent of the vote and Trump got 58.

Greenberg has long studied “Reagan Democrats” in Macomb County, "which Trump won by 12 points after Barack Obama carried it twice, including by 16 points in 2008," Hohmann notes. “Trump voters complain that there is no respect for President Trump or for people like them who voted for him,” Greenberg writes in a new memo summarizing his latest findings, with Nancy Zdunkewicz of Democracy Corps. “A healthy diet of Fox News is feeding the white working-class men fending off the challenges of Trump’s opponents, including those within their own families. They … feel vindicated that a businessman like Trump has produced a strong macro-economy and kept his promises on immigration. They continue to appreciate how he speaks his mind, unlike a typical politician.”
Balz's report was illustrated by the map above, which also shows how reliably Republican the overall rural vote has become. "One reason Balz’s piece is great is that it’s longitudinal: It tracks in a nuanced way how specific people’s attitudes about Trump have shifted gradually since he took office," Hohmann reports. "The best illustration is Kurt Glazier, 50, from Sterling, Ill.," population 15,000. Balz visited him four times. "He’s a state worker, a union member and chairman of the Republican Party in Whiteside County. . . . By midsummer of 2017, Glazier had growing concerns about Trump. . . .Near the first anniversary of the president taking office, Glazier worried especially that those who voted for Trump are now viewed by others as therefore being like Trump. . . . Glazier drew a distinction between the staunchest Trump supporters and other Republicans – like him."

Glazier told Balz, “I think the real party faithful, the educated voters, might be beginning to distance themselves from him, and I wouldn’t be too surprised to see a Republican challenger or challengers against Trump. They wanted so much of a change. But he has some changing to do himself before I would be supportive of him again. … A 71-year-old man like he is, I don’t foresee him changing a whole lot.”

Visa review puts rural America at risk of losing more doctors

Physician Bhupinder and his wife Jasmine, a medical student,
with their daughter. (Post-Dispatch photo by Sharon Mai)
Changes to the guest-worker visa program are doing more than hurting small businesses and farms: they could also take doctors away from rural areas that already face a doctor shortage. President Trump signed an executive order last April aimed at preventing fraud and abuse of work visas that allow foreigners to replace American workers. "This April, the Trump administration announced that the spousal visa of H-1B visa holders will be eradicated, effectively making the H-4 dependent spouses not able to seek employment or run businesses," Sharon Mai, Sudipto Maity, and Ranojoy Saha report for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.

H-1B visas allow highly skilled foreigners, about 70 percent of them Indians, to work in hard-to-fill fields such as rural medicine for up to three years. Physicians were once barred from obtaining temporary work visas, but Congress allowed the practice in 1991. The number of American physicians hasn't kept up with demand; a recent study by the Association of American Medical Colleges predicted the U.S. will face a shortage of between 40,800 and 104,900 physicians by 2030, the Post-Dispatch reports.

But the H1-B program may become far less desirable if foreign physicians' spouses can't also work. Khorzad Mehta, a Maryland attorney who works with immigrant physicians, advised that the U.S. must make green cards more readily available to foreign physicians to keep them in medically under-served areas of the U.S. Because Indian physicians are in the same category as information-technology and finance professionals, it can take up to 15 years to get a green card.

A Missouri immigrant physician named Bhupinder, who asked that his last name not be used, said "You're not taking away somebody's job by coming on H-1B as a physician . . . You're not hurting the country, you're taking care of people." His wife Jasmine, a medical student, could lose her visa under the new rule.

Farm Bill on House floor this week; Republican leaders scramble to find the votes to pass it

The U.S. House of Representatives is scheduled vote this week on a Republican-created Farm Bill that includes several controversial amendments, such as deep cuts to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, once known as food stamps. Agriculture Committee Chair Mike Conaway told Melanie Zanona ofThe Hill that the bill is still short of the 218 votes it needs but "He expressed confidence that he can flip enough members by working the phones over the weekend, clearing up any questions and concerns and pointing out that some amendments will get a floor vote."

"Democrats walked away from the normally bipartisan Farm Bill process when Republicans decided to include the SNAP revamp, which they say is unnecessarily cruel and would prevent 1 million people from receiving food stamps," Zanona reports. "Even the GOP conference is divided over the changes, with some moderate Republicans worried the requirements are too tough and others worried the changes don’t go far enough."

Changes to sugar subsidies are also a divisive issue, and one that regularly cuts across party lines. Rep. Virginia Foxx, R-N.C., has proposed an amendment to ensure taxpayers don't have to pay for federal bailouts of the sugar industry. But far-right Rep. Ted Yoho, R-Fla., says the amendment would be a "poison pill" that would put the farm bill in jeopardy if it gets to a vote, Zanona reports.

Another controversial provision: stricter work requirements on some food stamp recipients. "All able-bodied adults between the ages of 18 and 59 have to be working or enrolled in a training program for at least 20 hours per week in order to qualify for food stamps," Zanona reports. "People who are elderly, disabled or pregnant would be exempt from the requirements."

Dairy farmers, who have been facing hard times lately, will get some attention in the farm bill too with changes to the Dairy Margin Protection Program. The program has been criticized for not adequately reimbursing farmers hurt by falling milk prices. The farm bill proposal "the amount of milk that can qualify for coverage from four to six million pounds and made the payout monthly," Whitney Bashaw reports for The Daily Star in Oneonta, New York. It will also "strike 'margin protection' to replace it with 'dairy risk management.' The Dairy Margin Protection Program will be renamed Dairy Risk Management. Additionally, dairy producers will now be eligible to participate in the Livestock Gross Margin Insurance Plan for Dairy Cattle, which legislators said can provide flexibility for farmers."